Money wanted to see whether children are born gender neutral and explain that gender is a result of upbringing. He wanted to support his theory of gender neutrality.
Bruce and Brian were identical twin boy who at the age of 7 months were taken for circumcision to correct a medical problem, Bruce was treated first. However, an accident during the procedure resulted in Bruce’s penis being completely burnt off so that it was unrecognizable.
After the accident the Reimer's happened to see a TV programme where transgender issues were being discussed and the theory of gender neutrality was explained by Dr John Money.
They contacted Dr Money and asked his advice. He believed that all children were ‘gender neutral’ until the age of about 2 years old, meaning
that boys and girls were essentially the same until then. Because Bruce Reimer was less than a year old when the accident happened,
and the decision to raise him as a girl was made before the age of 2, it would be possible, according to Money, to raise Bruce as a girl called Brenda and no one would ever know ‘she’ was actually a ‘he’.
Acting on this the Reimer's decided to raise Bruce as a girl.
From before she was 2 Brenda was dressed in female clothing, encouraged to play with ‘girls’ toys and always told that she was a girl – she was not aware of the accident at all! Basic genital surgery was performed on Brenda at the age of 2.
At the age of 12, Brenda was given Oestrogen to try to encourage female puberty and prevent male features developing such as a deepening voice or facial hair.
Money tracked Brenda’s development over her childhood by organising annual visits for her and Brian to the University. In these he would
ask them questions about their preferences and behaviour.
Money reported that Brenda had adapted to the role of female and stated that this was consistent with his theory. He noted that Brenda liked wearing dresses and wanted to be a doctor or teacher when she grew up. He compared this to her brother who wanted to be a fireman. Money believed that comparisons about boys and girls showed that Brenda knew her gender was female and had helped her to adapt.
Dr Money concluded that it is possible to raise a boy as a girl.
Case update: (exam hint: this is part of the case, but not Money’s 1975 study)
However Brenda was considered by everyone who knew her to be a tomboy who liked to play with her brother’s toys and enjoyed aggressive play. She reported feeling ‘different’ and her teachers said she was generally more masculine than feminine. Brenda was even seen urinating standing up. Either Money did not know or he chose to ignore this evidence.
Brenda consistently refused to have further surgery and at the age of 15 was having severe emotional and behavioural problems, even threatening her parents that she would commit suicide if they made her see Dr. Money again.
Her parents then decided that she should be told the truth about who she was and Brenda finally knew she had been born a boy. From this
point onwards Brenda became known as David and lived as a male.
At the age of 16, David had plastic surgery to create a penis and at the age of 22, further surgery was conducted to make the penis more realistic. During his mid-20’s, David married a divorcee with 3 children to whom he became a step-father finally fulfilling his masculine identity.
After Dr. Money published his findings and reported that you could successfully raise a boy as a girl, David and his family appeared in a documentary where they put forward their views on what happened. David and his brother Brian reported that Money had used unethical practices to encourage the development of their different gender identities, including photographing them naked in different sexual positions.
This could never be proven as 2 years worth of the case notes on the twins were never released by Money.
David’s brother, Brian, had mental health problems (he developed schizophrenia shortly after finding out the truth about his twin). In 2002
Brian was found dead in his apartment after an overdose of drugs. After losing his brother, David became depressed, his marriage broke down
as a result of financial pressures, and then in 2004 he committed suicide.
The case study only followed one child and the results may not be applicable to all other children. For example David had an identical twin brother which may have also influenced his gender behaviour.
The case study collected in depth and detailed information. However the behaviour of the twins was misreported by Money as he always claimed that the study was successful in the reassignment of Bruce’s gender, but David’s later testimony argued against this. This means
that the conclusions from the original study were false and did not represent the true findings. Money may also have encouraged the parents to change Bruce’s sex in order for his own gain in supporting his theory.
This study strongly suggests that gender reassignment surgery may not always be successful so careful consideration should be taken over what gender to raise an intersex child. If biology is likely to have the biggest effect this should be considered first.
Real-life case so it has high ecological validity because the boy’s life and the events that happened to him were all real and not manipulated in any way. This means that the conclusions drawn about the importance of biology on gender identity are based on a real experience and not the result of an experimental condition.
Numerous ethical issues surround this case study. The twins were allegedly encouraged to pose naked in sexual positions which they said was
degrading. However there was no evidence to support this claim. Being involved in the case study was alleged to have been a factor in the mental break down of Brian Reimer, and the later suicide of David, suggesting the twins were not protected from mental harm.
For the Canadian politician, see David J. Reimer.
|Born||Bruce Peter Reimer|
(1965-08-22)August 22, 1965
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
|Died||May 4, 2004(2004-05-04) (aged 38)|
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
|Cause of death||Suicide|
|Other names||Brenda Reimer, Bruce Reimer|
|Spouse(s)||Jane Fontaine (1990–2004, his death)|
|Parent(s)||Janet Grace Schultz|
Ronald Peter Reimer
|Relatives||Brian Henry Reimer (identical twin, deceased)|
David Peter Reimer (August 22, 1965 – May 4, 2004) was a Canadian man born male but reassigned as a girl and raised female following medical advice and intervention after his penis was accidentally destroyed during a botched circumcision in infancy.
Psychologist John Money oversaw the case and reported the reassignment as successful and as evidence that gender identity is primarily learned. Academic sexologist Milton Diamond later reported that Reimer's realization he was not a girl crystallized between the ages of 9 and 11, and he transitioned to living as a male at age 15. Well known in medical circles for years anonymously as the "John/Joan" case, Reimer later went public with his story to help discourage similar medical practices. He later committed suicide after suffering years of severe depression, financial instability, and a troubled marriage.
David Reimer was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba. He was originally named Bruce, and his identical twin was named Brian. At the age of six months, after concern was raised about how both of them urinated, the boys were diagnosed with phimosis.:10 They were referred for circumcision at the age of seven months. On April 27, 1966, a urologist performed the operation using the unconventional method of electrocauterization,:11–13 but the procedure did not go as doctors had planned, and Bruce's penis was burned beyond surgical repair. The doctors chose not to operate on Brian, whose phimosis soon cleared without surgical intervention.
The parents, concerned about their son's prospects for future happiness and sexual function without a penis, took him to Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore in early 1967 to see John Money,:49 a psychologist who was developing a reputation as a pioneer in the field of sexual development and gender identity, based on his work with intersex patients. Money was a prominent proponent of the "theory of Gender Neutrality"—that gender identity developed primarily as a result of social learning from early childhood and that it could be changed with the appropriate behavioral interventions.:33–34 The Reimers had seen Money being interviewed in February 1967:39 on the Canadian news program This Hour Has Seven Days,:18 during which he discussed his theories about gender.:19–22
Money and physicians working with young children born with intersex conditions believed that a penis could not be replaced but that a functional vagina could be constructed surgically. It was also the safest and most conventional pathway to take: Money told the parents it was what would be best for the boy. Money also claimed that Reimer would be more likely to achieve successful, functional sexual maturation as a girl than as a boy.[page needed][not in citation given] For Money, a case where identical twin boys were involved where one could be raised as a girl provided a perfect test of his theories.
Money and the Hopkins team persuaded the baby's parents that sex reassignment surgery would be in Reimer's best interest.:50–52 At the age of 22 months, baby Bruce underwent a bilateral orchidectomy, in which his testes were surgically removed and a rudimentary vulva was fashioned.:53–54 Bruce was reassigned to be raised as female and given the name Brenda. Psychological support for the reassignment and surgery was provided by John Money, who continued to see Reimer annually for about a decade for consultations and to assess the outcome. This reassignment was considered an especially valid test case of the social learning concept of gender identity for two reasons: First, Reimer's identical twin brother, Brian, made an ideal control because the brothers shared genes, family environments, and the intrauterine environment. Second, this was reputed to be the first reassignment and reconstruction performed on a male infant who had no abnormality of prenatal or early postnatal sexual differentiation.
Reimer said that Money forced the twins to rehearse sexual acts involving "thrusting movements", with David playing the bottom role. Reimer said that, as a child, he had to get "down on all fours" with his brother, Brian Reimer, "up behind his butt" with "his crotch against" his "buttocks". Reimer said that Money forced David, in another sexual position, to have his "legs spread" with Brian on top. Reimer said that Money also forced the children to take their "clothes off" and engage in "genital inspections". On at "least one occasion", Reimer said that Money took a photograph of the two children doing these activities. Money's rationale for these various treatments was his belief that "childhood 'sexual rehearsal play'" was important for a "healthy adult gender identity".[page needed]
For several years, Money reported on Reimer's progress as the "John/Joan case", describing apparently successful female gender development and using this case to support the feasibility of sex reassignment and surgical reconstruction even in non-intersex cases. Money wrote, "The child's behavior is so clearly that of an active little girl and so different from the boyish ways of her twin brother." Notes by a former student at Money's lab state that, during the follow-up visits, which occurred only once a year, Reimer's parents routinely lied to lab staff about the success of the procedure. The twin brother, Brian, later developed schizophrenia.
Reimer had experienced the visits to Baltimore as traumatic rather than therapeutic, and when Money started pressuring the family to bring him in for surgery during which a vagina would be constructed, the family discontinued the follow-up visits. From 22 months into his teenaged years, Reimer urinated through a hole that surgeons had placed in the abdomen. Estrogen was given during adolescence to induce breast development.
His case came to international attention in 1997 when he told his story to Milton Diamond, an academic sexologist who persuaded Reimer to allow him to report the outcome in order to dissuade physicians from treating other infants similarly. Soon after, Reimer went public with his story, and John Colapinto published a widely disseminated and influential account in Rolling Stone magazine in December 1997.
This was later expanded into a full-length book As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl, in which Colapinto described how—contrary to Money's reports—when living as Brenda, Reimer did not identify as a girl. He was ostracized and bullied by peers (who dubbed him "cavewoman"), and neither frilly dresses (which he was forced to wear during frigid Winnipeg winters), nor female hormones made him feel female. By the age of 13, Reimer was experiencing suicidal depression, and he told his parents he would take his own life if they made him see John Money again. Finally, on March 14, 1980, Reimer's parents told him the truth about his gender reassignment, following advice from Reimer's endocrinologist and psychiatrist. At 14, having been informed of his past by his father, Reimer decided to assume a male gender identity, calling himself David. By 1987, Reimer had undergone treatment to reverse the reassignment, including testosterone injections, a double mastectomy, and two phalloplasty operations. On September 22, 1990, he married Jane Fontaine and adopted her three children.
In addition to his difficult lifelong relationship with his parents, Reimer had to deal with unemployment and the death of his brother Brian from an overdose of antidepressants on July 1, 2002. On May 2, 2004, his wife Jane told him she wanted to separate. On the morning of May 4, 2004, Reimer drove to a grocery store's parking lot in his hometown of Winnipeg and took his own life by shooting himself in the head with a sawed-off shotgun. He was 38 years old.
For the first thirty years after Money's initial report that the reassignment had been a success, Money's view of the malleability of gender became the dominant viewpoint among physicians and doctors, reassuring them that sexual reassignment was the correct decision in certain instances, resulting in thousands of sexual reassignments.
The report and subsequent book about Reimer influenced several medical practices, reputations, and even current understanding of the biology of gender. The case accelerated the decline of sex reassignment and surgery for unambiguous XY infants with micropenis, various other rare congenital malformations, or penile loss in infancy.
David Reimer has often been mentioned by Intactivists, who use him as an example of what could happen to a man if his parents decide to circumcise him at birth, and the effect it can have on him throughout his life. Only a few years after David Reimer's birth, Canada began taking a stance against infant circumcision, and it is now uncommon there.
Colapinto's book described unpleasant childhood therapy sessions, implying that Money had ignored or concealed the developing evidence that Reimer's reassignment to female was not going well. Money's defenders have suggested that some of the allegations about the therapy sessions may have been the result of false memory syndrome and that the family was not honest with researchers.
The case has also been treated by Judith Butler in her 2004 book Undoing Gender, which examines gender, sex, psychoanalysis, and the medical treatment of intersex people. The case of Reimer is used to re-examine Butler's theory of performativity that she originally explored in Gender Trouble.
The BBC science series Horizon based two episodes on his life. "The Boy Who Was Turned into a Girl" aired in 2000 and "Dr. Money and the Boy with No Penis" in 2004.
He was also mentioned in the 2017 documentary Gender Revolution.
In popular culture
- The Chicago Hope season 6 episode "Boys Will Be Girls" (2000) was based on Reimer's life. The episode explored the theme of a child's right not to undergo sexual reassignment surgery without consent.
- The Law & Order: Special Victims Unitseason 6 episode "Identity" (2005) was based on David and Brian Reimer's lives and their treatment by Money.
- The Weakerthans song "Hymn of the Medical Oddity" is about Reimer.
- The Mental episode "House of Mirrors" (2009), Dr. Jack Gallagher meets a young girl named Heather Masters with suicidal tendencies, who was born a boy.
- The Ensemble Studio Theatre produced the play Boy (2016) inspired by Reimer's story.
- ^ abcdefghijColapinto, John (2001). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-019211-9. OCLC 42080126.
- ^ abDiamond, Milton; Sigmundson, HK (March 1997). "Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 151 (3): 298–304. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170400084015. PMID 9080940. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
- ^ ab"David Reimer, 38, Subject of the John/Joan Case". The New York Times. May 12, 2004. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- ^ abWoo, Elaine (May 13, 2004). "David Reimer, 38; After Botched Surgery, He Was Raised as a Girl in Gender Experiment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
- ^ ab"Health Check: The boy who was raised a girl". BBC News. 23 November 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- ^"David Reimer: The Boy Who Lived as a Girl". CBC News. May 10, 2004. Archived from the original on August 7, 2012. Retrieved 2015-07-05.
- ^"Health Check: The boy who was raised a girl". BBC News. 2010-11-23. Retrieved 2017-05-13.
- ^ abcColapinto, J. (2001). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092959-6. Revised in 2006
- ^ ab"The Boy who was Turned into a Girl". Horizon. BBC. December 7, 2000. Retrieved May 19, 2015.
- ^ abc"Dr Money and the Boy with No Penis". Horizon. BBC. 2005.
- ^Colapinto, John (December 11, 1997). "The True Story of John/Joan". Rolling Stone: 54–97. Archived from the original on 2000-08-15.
- ^Colapinto, 1st edition, p/ 115
- ^Colapinto, J. (2004-06-03). "Gender Gap: What were the real reasons behind David Reimer's suicide?". Slate. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- ^ ab"Sex unknown".(2001). Nova transcripts. Retrieved January 1, 2012, from link
- ^"Canadian Paediatric Society re-affirms position against routine circumcision". CTV News. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- ^Burkeman, Oliver (2004-05-12). "Being Brenda". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-01.
- ^O'Connell, Sanjida (writer) (November 4, 2004). "Dr. Money And The Boy With No Penis". BBC Horizon. Season 41. Episode 8. (transcript).
- ^ ab"Treatment of Circumcision on TV". The Intactivism Pages. Retrieved 2009-02-01.
- ^Stewart, M.D. (October 4, 2007). "Metaphorical cats, medical oddities and men with brooms". Fast Forward Weekly. Archived from the original on 2014-12-05.
- ^"Sloan Science & Film". scienceandfilm.org. Retrieved 2016-04-22.