Arti Coursework Synonyms

"Professional education" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Career education.

Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, attending conferences, and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage.[1] There are a variety of approaches to professional development, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance.


The University of Management and Technology notes the use of the phrase "professional development" from 1857 onwards.[citation needed]

In the training of school staff in the United States, "[t]he need for professional development [...] came to the forefront in the 1960's".[3]


A wide variety of people, such as teachers, military officers and non-commissioned officers, health care professionals, lawyers, accountants and engineers engage in professional development. Individuals may participate in professional development because of an interest in lifelong learning, a sense of moral obligation, to maintain and improve professional competence, to enhance career progression, to keep abreast of new technology and practices, or to comply with professional regulatory requirements.[4][5] Many American states have professional development requirements for school teachers. For example, Arkansas teachers must complete 60 hours of documented professional development activities annually.[6] Professional development credits are named differently from state to state. For example, teachers: in Indiana are required to earn 90 Continuing Renewal Units (CRUs) per year;[7] in Massachusetts, teachers need 150 Professional Development Points (PDPs);[8] and in Georgia, must earn 10 Professional Learning Units (PLUs).[9] American and Canadian nurses, as well as those in the United Kingdom, have to participate in formal and informal professional development (earning credit based on attendance of education that has been accredited by a regulatory agency) in order to maintain professional registration.[10][11][12]


In a broad sense, professional development may include formal types of vocational education, typically post-secondary or poly-technical training leading to qualification or credential required to obtain or retain employment. Professional development may also come in the form of pre-service or in-service professional development programs. These programs may be formal, or informal, group or individualized. Individuals may pursue professional development independently, or programs may be offered by human resource departments. Professional development on the job may develop or enhance process skills, sometimes referred to as leadership skills, as well as task skills. Some examples for process skills are 'effectiveness skills', 'team functioning skills', and 'systems thinking skills'.[13][14]

Professional development opportunities can range from a single workshop to a semester-long academic course, to services offered by a medley of different professional development providers and varying widely with respect to the philosophy, content, and format of the learning experiences. Some examples of approaches to professional development include:

  • Case Study Method – The case method is a teaching approach that consists in presenting the students with a case, putting them in the role of a decision maker facing a problem (Hammond 1976) – See Case method.
  • Certification - to assess a professional and evaluate the different competencies based on a given set of standards required in the sector employed. (For instance, in the Teaching profession there is a certification offered by Centre for Teacher Accreditation (CENTA) which aims to recognise outstanding teachers)
  • Consultation – to assist an individual or group of individuals to clarify and address immediate concerns by following a systematic problem-solving process.
  • Coaching – to enhance a person’s competencies in a specific skill area by providing a process of observation, reflection, and action.
  • Communities of Practice – to improve professional practice by engaging in shared inquiry and learning with people who have a common goal
  • Lesson Study – to solve practical dilemmas related to intervention or instruction through participation with other professionals in systematically examining practice
  • Mentoring – to promote an individual's awareness and refinement of his or her own professional development by providing and recommending structured opportunities for reflection and observation
  • Reflective Supervision – to support, develop, and ultimately evaluate the performance of employees through a process of inquiry that encourages their understanding and articulation of the rationale for their own practices
  • Technical Assistance – to assist individuals and their organization to improve by offering resources and information, supporting networking and change efforts.[citation needed]


Initial professional development (IPD) is defined as "a period of development during which an individual acquires a level of competence necessary in order to operate as an autonomous professional".[15]Professional associations may recognise the successful completion of IPD by the award of chartered or similar status. Examples of professional bodies that require IPD prior to the award of professional status are the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications,[16] the Institution of Structural Engineers,[17] and the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health.[18]


Continuing professional development (CPD) or continuing professional education (CPE) is continuing education to maintain knowledge and skills. Most professions have CPD obligations. Examples are the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors,[19]American Academy of Financial Management,[20] safety professionals with the International Institute of Risk & Safety Management (IIRSM)[21] or the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH),[22] and medical and legal professionals, who are subject to continuing medical education or continuing legal education requirements, which vary by jurisdiction.

See also[edit]


  1. ^Speck, M. & Knipe, C. (2005) Why can't we get it right? Designing high-quality professional development for standards-based schools(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press[need quotation to verify]
  2. ^Murphy-Latta, Terry (2008). A Comparative Study of Professional Development Utilizing the Missouri Commissioner's Award of Excellence and Indicators of Student Achievement. ProQuest. p. 19. ISBN 9780549489900. Retrieved 2013-08-12.  
  3. ^Golding, L. & Gray, I. (2006).Continuing professional development for clinical psychologists:A practical handbook. The British Psychological Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
  4. ^Jasper, M. (2006).Professional development, reflection, and decision-making. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  5. ^"Professional Development and Renewal of Standard Teaching License". Arkansas Department of Education. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. 
  6. ^"Indiana Certification Renewal | Find Out How to Renew Indiana Teaching Certificates on". Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  7. ^"Recertification Q and A - Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education". 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  8. ^"Georgia Teacher Certification Information - Georgia PLU's Resources Online - GA Teaching License Resources". Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  9. ^"Continuing Competence". College of Registered Nurses of Manitoba. April 2004. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008. 
  10. ^"Continuing Education". North Dakota Board of Nursing. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. 
  11. ^"The Nursing and Midwifery Council | Nursing and Midwifery Council". 2014-03-14. Retrieved 2014-03-20. 
  12. ^Garet, M. S.; Porter, A. C; Desimone, L.; Birman, B. F; Yoon, K. S. (1 January 2001). "What Makes Professional Development Effective? Results From a National Sample of Teachers". American Educational Research Journal. 38 (4): 915–945. doi:10.3102/00028312038004915. 
  13. ^"Connecting Coaches to Corporates". Retrieved 28 April 2015. 
  14. ^The UK Initial Professional Development (IPD) Forum
  15. ^"Initial Professional Development (IPD)". The Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  16. ^"Initial Professional Development". The Institution of Structural Engineers. Retrieved 8 June 2014. 
  17. ^"Membership: About membership: Professional development: About IPD". (IOSH). Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  18. ^"About RCIS: What we do: Continuing professional development (CPD)". Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. Retrieved 9 August 2014. 
  19. ^"GAFM ® Certified Financial Analyst Certification Risk Certified Financial Planner Books GAFM ® - AFA Accredited Financial Analyst ® Certification - AMA Accredited Management Accountant ® - MMC Master Management Consultant ® Chartered Economist - Continuing Ed". 
  20. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2013-09-16. 
  21. ^"Membership: About membership: Professional development: About CPD". (IOSH). Retrieved 9 August 2014. 

External links[edit]

A monument inside the Sennyu-ji Temple is dedicated to Sei Shonagon, the author of Pillow Book, about her time as a court lady to Empress Consort Teishi in the early eleventh century.


Perhaps, the youngest judge among the six judges, the only Supreme Court Lady Justice Njoki Ndungu, watching her during a highly publicized SC proceedings, the graceful lady justice for seven days, hearing her legal comments, remarks and 'feminine' appeal, I am even more convinced that Affirmative Action for a more concious women's inclusion in decision and policy-making processes is the way to go.

Women, affirmative action and justice

Noddy Holder presented Liam Gallagher with his award Winners Dizzee Rascal and Florence Welch performed together The Sugababes arrive at Earls Court Lady Gaga caused a stir as she arrived at the ceremony

Glory for Lady Gaga at 30th Brit awards

In this milieu, the figure of the intellectually accomplished and morally unimpeachable woman, behind whom stood the influential court lady, came to symbolize in men's minds the current ascending cultural trend: in earlier times, the age of humanistic studies and, in later decades, that of vernacular literature.

Virginia Cox. Women's Writing in Italy, 1400-1650

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