ICT IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING
Now, ICT (Information and Communication Technology) has been used in almost all fields of life, including in education. In education, computer technology has become so essential that the government put ICT as one of the curriculum in Indonesia’s education. The utilization of ICT in education has recently started to appeal the potential and significant progress in language learning. It has become a major issue in education world and has been used from preschool through to university that could facilitate students and teacher in teaching and learning process. ICT has been publicized as potentially powerful enabling tools for educational change and reform. The computers play significant role in the learning process especially in learning language. As Hartoyo (2008) stated in his book, a computer is a tool and medium that facilitates people in learning a language, although the effectiveness of learning depends totally on the users. The technology in this era has been grown up not only from the quality but also the efficiency. They are moving fast without any limit from every product. The need of technological innovation has brought the communication revolution and rapid development of technological application in teaching and learning. This technology made contribution on improving language communication in Indonesia. Every school has used the ICT to facilitate the teacher to teach the students in the classroom. Many kinds of application that they use in the classroom improved and enhanced the better lesson.
Hartoyo (2008) also asserts that English language teaching has been shaped by the search for the ‘one best method’ of teaching the language. Regardless of whether the focus of instruction has been reading, the grammatical rules and vocabulary of the target language (e.g. Grammar Translation Method), speaking (how to communicate the target language such as Direct Method, Audio-Lingual Method, The Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Community Language, Communicative Approach), or other issues (e.g. The Total Physical Response Method), the attempts of the teaching profession have been shaped by a desire to find ‘a’ better way of teaching than the existing method. The latest method that is developing is Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Some experts and practitioners of education learning language in CALL, strongly supports the utilization of ICT in language learning to improve efficiency and effectiveness of learning that can improve the quality of understanding and mastery of the language studied. In other words, the integration of ICT in the field of language learning is inevitable known that the ICT and language learning are two aspects which support each other like two sides of the coin inseparable (Hartoyo, 2010). Fortunately, the use of Computer Assisted-Learning language (CALL) has increased noticeably by English teachers. Consideration of Computer Assisted Language Learning is using computer. This tool is flexible, rich and interactive. It is flexible in the term of time and place. It has also assumed that more than other media can encourage students in learning language. This is due to the computer’s ability to present material is more diverse ways than either book or video does. In addition, CALL is able to generate interaction and improve communicative competence, including providing authentic material to the class or self – learning. The method focuses in computer utilization to enhance language learning.
The use of ICT in education is absolutely required. Integration of ICT in teaching and learning process is a topic of interest to many researchers, including education practitioners. Based on the use of ICT can be applied in three different scopes such as: curriculum, topics, and teaching eye. ICT also in terms of finding learning materials from original sources and recognized. In finding articles from international journals, the students can get it just by sitting in front of computers connected to the Internet network. All information about science can be presented in a short time just by using the Internet. Learning materials that have been obtained and copied and transferred to the USB, it can also be printed directly so that it can be used as learning materials. At the recent time teaching and learning are facilitated by computer has been the demand.
This essay proposes description to help the institution, teacher and student that the role of technology is being used to ease them to achieve the objective of education. Besides, it is aimed to introduce teacher and learner about the effect of technology in language teaching and learning. At the latest decades, technology becomes the most important things in which many people regard technology as the result of science. By the technology people are eased to accomplish the complicated and sophisticated problem. Since, the objective of this essay are to describe ICT, the benefits of ICT, and explain how significant is the use of ICT in English language teaching and learninis making the difficult to be the easy done, people are helped to solve their problem.
III. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
English language is a necessity of for most people in today’s world, while technology development always has a very high and also contributed towards the development of education, especially English. As English is one of difficult lessons, teacher must create interactive teaching and learning to make students interest. In the history of the development of education, information technology is part of the medium used to convey the message of science to many people, ranging from printing technology a few centuries ago, such as printed books, such as telecommunications to media, voice recorded on tape, video, television, and CD. According to Kent “ICT in education point of view refers to “information and communication Technology (ICT) such as computers, communications facilities and features that variously support teaching, learning and a range of activities in education (QCA Schemes of Work for ICT in Kent Country Council. 2004). Moreover, the term information and Communications Technologies includes technologies in which the computer plays a central role, i.e. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), the internet, and variety of generic computer application (Fitzparick and Davies, 2002)
The development of information technology, the Internet, directs the history of educational technology in the new groove. Online services in the education of both degree and non-degree are basically providing educational services to users using the Internet as a medium. Online services can be composed of various stages of the process of educational programs such as: registration, test entry, payment, learning, case assignments, case discussions, exams, assessments, discussions, and announcements. Nothing the positive impact of various studies on the use of ICT to support learning in the school, it is a must if the school is not excessive in this country also have the prospect of a future that allows for deploying ICT in supporting learning and they are:
Electronic book or e-book is one that utilizes computer technology to deliver multimedia information in the form of a compact and dynamic. In an” e-book can be integrated impressions” sound, graphics, images, animations, and” movie” so that the information presented is richer than conventional books. Type e-book of the simplest is a mere transfer of conventional books into electronic form displayed by the computer. With this technology, hundreds of books can be stored in a single piece of solid disc / CD” or” compact disk (capacity of about 700MB), DVD or digital versatile disc”” (capacity 4.7 to 8.5 GB) and ‘ ‘flash” (currently available capacity up to 16 GB). A more complex and require more rigorous designs such as the Encyclopedia Britannica and Microsoft Encarta encyclopaedia which is in multimedia format. Multimedia format allows e-book provides not only written information but also sound, images, movies and other multimedia elements. A description of the type of music, for example, can be accompanied by footage of the sound of music so that the user can clearly understand what is meant by the renderer.
Various definitions can be found for the” e-learning”. Victoria L. Tinio, for example, states that” e-learning” includes learning at all levels, formal and informal, which uses a computer network (intranet and extranet) for the delivery of teaching materials, interaction, and / or facilitation. For most of the process of learning that takes place with the help of the Internet is often referred to as online learning. Broader definition proposed in the working paper SEAMOLEC, the e-learning is learning through electronic services. Although a variety of definitions but basically agreed that the e-learning is learning by using electronic technology as a means of presenting and distributing information. Included in the definition of educational television and radio broadcasts is a form of e-learning. Although radio and television education is a form of e-learning, it is generally agreed that e-learning reaches peak form after synergize with internet technology.
Internet-based learning or web-based learning in its simplest form is the” website” are used to present learning materials. This method enables learners to access learning resources provided by the speakers or facilitators whenever desired. If it is necessary that may also be provided mailing list specifically for the learning website that serves as a forum for discussion. E-learning facility” complete” provided by a special software called software or learning management LMS (learning management system). Current running LMS-based Internet technology so it can be accessed from anywhere over the available access to the internet. Facilities provided include the management of students or learners, learning materials management, learning management, including management of learning evaluation and management of communication between learners with facilitators.
This facility enables the learning activities are managed in the absence of face-to-face between the parties involved (administrators, facilitators, learners or learners). ‘Presence’ the parties involved are represented by e-mail, chat channel, or via video conference. In today’s era where information and communication technology is rapidly developed and turns to be a lifestyle for people throughout ages and places, its literacy has undoubtedly become a prior necessity. The sensitivity of the technology helps one in attending a more important task and in attaining a higher achievement in the area of education, professional career, and social relationship at which its literacy is a major requisite. ICT which stands for Information and Communication and Technology, is elaborated as follows.
ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receiving information electronically in a digital form. For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots. So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. Importantly, it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other.
Information means the processed data in a meaningful and purposeful form according to Shore in Hartoyo (2012:2)
According to Potts, communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding. Brown (2011) stated communication is transfer of information from one person to another,whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver.
Technology derived from the word ‘techno’ which means technique, art or skill, and ‘logos’ which means science. Therefore, technology can be defined as a scientific knowledge of art or skill.
Based on the definitions of the three components, ICT as a whole can be described as the utility of technology to support the effort of conveying information and communication particularly in the area of education. The technique includes digital technologies mostly of electronic information – processing technologies, such as computers, internet, mobile phones, networks, broadband, and so on.
b. The benefits of ICT in general
ICT is found to be advantageous in several ways as mentioned by Herington (2002), (1) technology facilitates exposure to authentic language; (2) technology provides the access to wider sources of information and varieties of language; (3) technology gives the opportunity to people to communicate with the world outside; (4) technology allows a learner – centered approach; (5) technology develops learner’s autonomy. ICT help people in order to get information and to communicate each other in wider range.
c. ICT Tools in Language Context
There are some kinds of technologies classified into information and communication technology commonly used in language context, such as:
Interactive media is the integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerized environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes. The digital environment can include the Internet, telecoms and interactive digital television. (Finney, 2011:2)
Computer can be utilized with other multimedia learning devices or it can stand alone (a standard PC) and still serves its basic purpose as an electronic medium of language learning. (Hartoyo, 2012:29).
Computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving information (data) and performing a sequence of logical operations in accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instruction (program) to produce results in the form of information or signals based on Oxford dictionary. It is consist of CPU, monitor, keyboard and some other apparatus.
Audio devices can be used with other media to form an interactive multimedia. However, it can also be utilized separately as independent tool. Audio devices include speaker, earphone, CD, and etc.
Internet can be used as a medium of language learning through email, www (world wide web), text, audio and video conferencing.
According to Oxford dictionary, television is a system for converting visual images (with sound) into electrical signals, transmitting them by radio or other means, and displaying them electronically on a screen.
This telephone medium has not been widely used for language teaching because of the poor quality of analogue transmissions. However, there is new invent of digital quality and lower connection cost which potential for conference calls.
Mobile gadgets such as cell phone and smart phone which are equipped with programs like computer, which enable it to perform as mini personal computer. By using this gadget and its internet connection, everybody could enjoy chatting, browsing, and discuss each other with the wider range. The advancement of science and technology makes the size and price of those gadgets are getting cheaper and reachable.
This media provides facility or example that enables an interaction between human and computer. People set up more interaction with computer in a more intuitive way with less effort-through writing, voice, touch, eye movements, and other gestures. (Hartoyo,2012:34) This technology serves as the milestone of the recent development of interactive multimedia, audio-graphic computer teleconference, and interactive television via satellite (National Broadband of Employment, Education and Training, 1993:5).
An interactive whiteboard or IWB, is a large interactive display (such as a touch screen monitor) which is connected to a computer and projector. A projector projects the computers’ desktop onto the board’s surface, where users control the computer using a pen, finger or other devices.
d. Current application of ICT in English language teaching and learning
ICT defined as technology which the function is to support the process of conveying information and communication. The ways of conveying information doesn’t have to be carried out directly between the communicator and the communicant. The development of ICT makes the process of communication between the communicator and the communicant can be conveys in easy ways. They can communicate through telephone, internet, e-mail, satellite, television, video conference and so on. The process of those communications applies in language learning. In language learning, there is a communication between teacher and student. The process of learning is not always carried out by subjecting teacher and students in the certain room or a certain place directly. As the example, teacher can use internet as the medium to give lessons, assignments, or other information to their students.
In context of language learning, ICT has an important role as the “media” bridging and enabling the learning process, or direct communication between students and teacher although they are not present in the same room or place in certain time. Language learning program can be created to enable students to learn the lessons with guidance, instruction, information or further explanation. ICT in language learning used as a reference-book. Computer can store unlimited lessons or references, which can be accessed anytime, anywhere and accurately. Fitzpatrick and Davies (2002) in Hartoyo (2012) sets out the seven ways in which ICT used in language learning:
Some material of language learning such as text-based materials, audio-video needs to present to the learners. Presentation helps learners in understanding the learning material well.
Some of different exercises types are possible to be provided with ICT, incorporating the presentation stimuli in varying combinations of text, audio and video format. ICT also offers the possibility of the analyzing learners’ responses with appropriate feedback.(Hartoyo, 2012:40)
In applying ICT in language learning, teacher can either purchase ready-made materials or create their own exercise materials using a variety of authoring tools based on Hartoyo (2012:40).
d) Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA)
Computer-Aided Assessment (CAA) is playing an increasingly important role in foreign language teaching and learning. This media used to testing and assessing students understanding after learning some courses.
ICT tools exist to help teachers and learners or students to publishing or linked in their work in a local area network. ICT may use by the teacher and learners to help them publish their work in these ways:
- Word – processors and Desk Top Publishing (DTP) software
- Doing audio recording and editing tools to record interview, discussions, learning material and etc
- Using digital camera and camcorder to record presentations, drama, role play, and so on
- Power point can be used as the medium to publish presentations
- Web pages using web authoring tools
Technology can help learners and teachers to communicate with another. Some ICT tools which can use as the medium of information are: 1) Email, which allows language learners to communicate with ‘web pals’ in other countries; 2) Tandem learning; 3) computer mediated discussion; 4) web-based learning environment; 5) audio conferencing; 6) Video Conferencing.
The computer can act as a stimulus which generates analysis, critical thinking, discussion and writing. Program which include simulations are especially effective as stimuli. Examples of language learning tasks which ‘simulate’ real world tasks are : 1) Web Quest; 2) Action Mazes; 3) Adventure games; 4) Sunpower; 5) Expodisc; 6) “Real-life” simulations; 7) video conference.
ICT appears to give both advantages and disadvantages. ICT in language learning reduces the intimacy of students – teacher relationship that it may negatively contributes to students affective feelings in the process of learning. However, ICT appears as a ‘bridge’ to break the distance and ‘survive’ the learning. In case of distance, teachers can use ICT through video conference to enable them teach or monitor the students learning process. Therefore, the development of ICT is seen as a better way of teaching and learning a certain language compared to the existing methods. Through the internet, teacher or learners can obtain as many as possible sources related to the learned – language; such as text, songs, stories, etc. Those sources can contribute as models of the learned – language use in the real context and in a proper manner. In addition, computer can also be used as a more interactive aid to support the learning of language compared to that of tape recorder, or chalk and blackboard. However, you can see that many of the technology solutions available in the world of education can lead to confusion among the teachers on how to choose the right ICT technology solutions. Let’s take a look at the advantages and disadvantages of ICT tools for education and finding a suitable ICT education solution for the needs of the school.
- The information required will be more quickly and easily accessible for educational purposes.
- Innovation in learning is growing in the presence of e-learning innovations that further facilitate the educational process.
- Progress of ICT will also allow the development of virtual classroom or classroom-based teleconference that does not require the educator and learners are in one room.
- System administration in an institution will be more easily and smoothly because of the application of ICT systems.
- Progress of ICT will also occur of violation of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) for the easy access to the data that is causing people plagiatis will commit fraud.
- Although the system of the administration of an educational institution like a system without a gap, but if there is a recklessness in running the system would be dangerous.
- One of the negative impact of television is to train children to think short and survive concentrated in a short time (short span of attention).
V. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
ICT is a form of advanced science technology must be optimized function, especially in the implementation of learning. ICT provides opportunities for students in the era of global competition needs to obtain adequate supplies. through innovative ICT-based learning can provide vast opportunities for students to hone and promote competence on an international scale. On the other hand, mental attitude and self-reliance in accessing any information necessary learning independently influence the value teaching student’s character it does not always depends with others. Mastering current tick is necessity for every human being inedible age. as well as in education, innovative learning, especially learning can be done by using the Internet to generate device-based learning ICT
Davi U.K. Ltd.es, B. Dan Ellison, L. (1992).School Development Planning.Essex: Longman Group
Hartoyo (2008). Individual Differences in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Semarang: Pelita Insani Semarang
Victoria L. Tinio, (1999). Modificating teaching through ICT. The American journal. 12, 56-63
A List Of Fresh Communication Technology Essay Topics
Communication technology essay topics can include a wide range of ideas. You may have learned new things so far in this field that could serve as a great topic idea. Because this industry affects a large number of people on a regular basis, you may want to consider topics that provide statistical data on changes being made and the future outlook of the industry. Since there are various broad topics you can write about for an essay, here are 10 ideas to consider that may inspire an original topic of your own.
- How had television changed the way the world is viewed? A technology essay can review ways people view things differently because of television.
- Has the internet become more reliable for news than television? More people use the internet on a regular basis and watch everything using it including television shows, news and weather.
- Has technology helped to censor more inappropriate content shared on TV or the internet? A technology essay can explore what needs to changed or improved in relation to censorship of content through media.
- Are automated voice systems helpful or hurtful to a company and their customer service relations? A communication technology essay can explore pros and cons of using automated voice systems.
- Are more people dependent on computers? In recent years a number of studies claim people may use them to do just about everything including grocery shopping.
- Should cellphones have the option to shop over the internet? An essay can discuss advantages and disadvantages of using cellphones to access the internet.
- Has social media encouraged positive or negative communications among people? More people may use social media to connect with others, but is more communication considered negative or positive for social media users?
- How has communication technology helped companies hire more people? What areas of technology have help companies grow at a faster pace? What are areas that may have a negative effect on hiring?
- The growth of telecommuting. A communication technology essay paper can explore ways the concept has helper more people be able to work from home or telecommute instead of having a traditional job.
- How technology plays a huge role in helping people obtain an education. How are more people able to obtain certifications and degrees much faster?