Major “problems and prospects” ofBangladeshINTRODUCTION:Agriculture is the ancient and the most common profession in Bangladesh. Most of thepeople of Bangladesh live in village and most of the villagers (62% manpower in 1) areinvolved in agriculture. One of the main reasons of having common interest to agricultureis: the land is very fertile and most of the part of Bangladesh is plain. Another interestingthing is Bangladeshi people naturally good in agriculture. Agricultural sector is the singlelargest contributor to GDP. The crop sub-sector dominates the sector contributing about72% of total production. Fisheries, livestock and forestry sub-sectors are 10.33%, 0.11%and 7.33% respectively 2. Though government has many positive steps for that sector butstill has some present and future challenges as well. PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE:Financial Problem Bangladesh is not such a rich country that has adequate money to spend at any time forany sector. Sometimes some major and emergency agricultural decision needs a goodamount of money that is not possible all the times to provide for that sector. Natural Disaster Natural disaster like flood, drought, excessive rain and other natural disaster are barrier tomeet the expected level of production. Specially the natural disasters mentioned aboveare mostly harm crop production. The flood of this year (2007) destroys huge area of cropfields. Promotion of New Inventions Bangladeshi agriculturists have some glorious inventions that can change the scenario ofour land. But unfortunately because of negligence of different part of government theseinventions cannot be promoted and reached to farmers’ door that ultimately brings zeroresult. Improper Distribution of Seed & Fertilizer
Agriculture is a major economic activity in Bangladesh. It currently employs around 50 percent of country’s labor force and contributes around 20 percent of country’s GDP. Growth in agricultural sector has important linkages with the overall economy through various channels. It is important to note that, at the WTO, Bangladesh, as an LDC, is not bound to undertake any liberalisation in its domestic agricultural sector in terms of tariff cut or subsidy withdrawal. However, there are concerns that actions taken by the developed and developing countries in terms of reduction in agricultural domestic support measures might have important negative implications for the net food importing countries like Bangladesh. It is also important to note that under bilateral trading arrangements, such as India-Bangladesh bilateral FTA, there are scopes for increased trade in agricultural products between Bangladesh and India. Bangladesh’s market access for its agricultural exports in India is likely to increase whereas there will be increased imports of agricultural products from India. Therefore, liberalisation in the trade in agriculture has important implications for the agricultural commodities which are either exported or imported. Increased market access of agricultural exports from Bangladesh under such trade agreement will lead to rise in production and employment in those export-oriented sectors; whereas, domestic liberalisation in the agricultural sectors may dampen output and employment in the import-competing agricultural sectors. It thus appears that the growth in the domestic agricultural sector doesn’t only rely on the domestic policies and programs, rather global and regional trade policies have important implications for this sector. Moreover, the various economic policies and programs, such as domestic fiscal policies, import policies and programs for growth in agricultural productivity also affect the development of the agricultural sector in an economy. This study explores the links between major economic policy reforms and growth the agricultural sector in Bangladesh. This study examines how economic policy reforms affect the agricultural sector in Bangladesh in terms of output, import, export and employment. Under a general equilibrium framework, this study explores three trade liberalization scenarios (a global agricultural trade liberalization scenario under WTO-Doha agreement, Bangladesh – India bilateral FTA, and domestic agricultural trade liberalization), one fiscal policy scenario (rise in agricultural subsidy) and one technological change scenario (rise in agricultural productivity).
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